过去完成体用法教学
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   完成体是动词的一种形式,表示动作或状态已经完成,结构是:主动词have的不同时态+-ed分词。可以分为现在完成体和过去完成体。现在完成体大家比较熟悉了,那么今天小编就和大家一起学习我们不太熟悉的过去完成体~

  过去完成体,顾名思义,就是表示在过去某一时间之前已经发生或完成的动作,也就是我们所说的“过去的过去”。因此,它有“已完成”用法和“未完成”用法。结构为:had+-ed分词。

  一、“已完成”:表示一个动作或状态在过去某时之前已经完成或结束。

  I had finished my homework when my friends came.我朋友来的时候,我就已经完成家庭作业了。

  My father had left for Beijing before I came home. 在我到家前,爸爸已经离开去北京了。

  二、“未完成”:表示一个动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且到那时还未结束,仍有继续下去的可能性。

  Jack said that he had made much progress in English since he came here.

  杰克说自从他到这儿以后,英语已经取得了很大进步。

  By six o’clock these workers had worked twelve hours. 到六点钟时,这些工人已经工作十二小时了。

  三、连词引导过去完成体用法:有些连词引导的过去完成时可互换。

  When I reached the station, the train had already left.

  =I reached the station after the train had left.

  =I didn’t reach the station until the train had left.

  =The train had left before I reached the station.

  在我到车站时,火车已经走了。

  四、过去完成体的虚拟用法:表示与过去事态相反的主观设想。

  1. 用于if, if only, as if引导的分句:

  If you had worked hard, you would have passed the exam. 如果你努力学习的话,你就已经通过考试了。

  If I were you, I would not do it. 我要是你,就不做这事。

  If only I had finished it before. 要是我之前完成了这件事就好了。

  I felt as if I had been a bird in the sky.我感觉自己好似天空一只小鸟。

  2. 用于I wish, I would rather引导的that从句:

  I wished that I had knew the answer to the question before he asked me. 我希望在他问我以前,我知道问题的答案。

  I would rather you had told me the truth. 我宁愿你跟我说实话。

  3. 用于expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose等表示过去未曾实现的希望、打算或意图。

  I had intended to buy a present for you, but I forgot that. 我本打算给你买礼物的,但我忘了。

  I had hoped that we could pass the exam, but we failed in the end. 我本希望我们都能通过考试,但最终我们失败了。

  因此,由上可知,比起现在完成体,过去完成体用法复杂,且具体“虚拟”的特殊用法,需要我们在平时使用中加以注意。


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