非谓语动词
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  非谓语动词:

  在英语中,不作句子谓语,而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有动词不定式(the Infinitive);动名词(the Gerund);现在分词(the Present Participle);过去分词(the Past Participle)。

  一、非谓语动词与谓语动词 1.相同点: (1)如果是及物动词都可与宾语连用,例如:

  They built a garden.

  They suggested building a garden. (2)都可以被状语修饰: The suit fits him very well. The suit used to fit him very well. (3)都有主动与被动, “体”式(一般式;进行式;完成式)的变化。例如: He was punished by his parents.(谓语动词被动语态) He avoided being punished by his parents.(动名词的被动式) We have written the composition.(谓语动词的完成时) Having written the composition, we handed it in.(现在分词的完成式) (4)都可以有逻辑主语 They started the work at once.(谓语动词的逻辑主语) The boss ordered them to start the work.(动词不定式的逻辑主语) We are League members.(谓语动词的主语) We being League member, the work was well done. (现在分词的逻辑主语) 2、不同点: (1)非谓语动词可以有名词作用(如动词不定式和动名词),在句中做主语、宾语、表语。 (2)非谓语动词可以有形容词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。(3)非谓语动词可以有副词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中作状语。 二、非谓语动词用法: (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1.不定式的形式: 否定式:not + do (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,

  例如: I'm glad to meet you. He seems to know a lot. We plan to pay a visit. He wants to be an artist. The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done.(2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend. 2.不定式的句法功能: (1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure.   动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. (2)作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold.(3)作宾语:   常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. (4)作宾语补足语:   在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.   此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema.   有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. (5)作定语:   动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend.   注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with?   如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem.   如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语: He is the first to get here. (6)作状语: ①表目的: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.   注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone.   常用only放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因: They were very sad to hear the news.④表程度: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. (7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. (8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。 If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. (9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. (二)动名词:   动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。 1.动名词的形式: 否定式:not + 动名词 (1)一般式: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 (2)被动式: He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 (3)完成式: We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 (4)完成被动式: He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。(5)否定式:not + 动名词 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 (6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词 He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 2.动名词的句法功能: (1)作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。 It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。 (2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。 (3)作宾语: They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。   注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如: We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。   要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…,keep …from, stop…(from),protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…, succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like (4)作定语: He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。 Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你们学校有游泳池吗? (5)作同位语: The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。 (三)现在分词:   现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。 1、现在分词的形式: 否定式:not + 现在分词 (1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如: They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。 (2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。2.现在分词的句法功能: (1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语放在名词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。   现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years也可用in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher可改为the man who is speaking to the teacher.(2)现在分词作表语: The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。   be + doing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于be + doing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。 (3)作宾语补足语:   如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语: see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch等。例如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗? He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 (4)现在分词作状语: ①作时间状语: Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 ②作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 ③作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 ④作条件状语: Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 ⑤作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 ⑥作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 ⑦作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 ⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard. 我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。 Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用with +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 ⑨作独立成分: udging from his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。 (四)过去分词:   过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。   过去分词的句法功能: 1.过去分词作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。   注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2.过去分词作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) The window was broken by the boy.(被动)   有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界)   这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。 3.过去分词作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。   有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。 4.过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步)

  由于自身的特点和复杂性,非谓语动词是中学生较难掌握语法项目之一,也是短文改错命题的一个热点。非谓语动词内容很多,因此命题的知识点也有很多。短文改错除了考查非谓语动词的基本功能外,还考查非谓语动词的形式变化以及动词与非谓语动词的不同搭配等。 三、易错点回顾: 1. 下面短语中的to是介词,后面只能跟名词或动名词:

  devote oneself/one’s time, energy, etc. to,get down to,lead to ,object to,pay attention to ,look forward to ,be used to ,stick to 等。

  〔误〕 His whole family objected to his give up the job.

  〔正〕 His whole family objected to his giving up the job. 2. 下列动词后只能跟不定式:

  afford, agree, ask, attempt, choose, decide, hope, expect, intend, learn, long, manage, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish等。

  〔误〕 He offered helping me.

  〔正〕 He offered to help me. 3. 下列动词或动词短语的后面只能跟动名词:

  admit,appreciate, avoid, can’t help, stand, consider ,enjoy, escape ,excuse, finish, give up, imagine, insist on, mind, miss(错过), practise, put off, risk, set about, suggest等。

  〔误〕 He admitted to break the window.

  〔正〕 He admitted breaking the window. 4. 下列动词后既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词,但含义不同:

  forget to do forget doing

  regret to do regret doing

  try to do try doing

  stop doing stop to do

  mean to do mean doing

  go on to do go on doing

  〔误〕 He regretted to hurt his best friend.

  〔正〕 He regretted hurting his best friend.

  〔析〕表示"后悔干过……",regret后跟动名词。 5. 下列动词后跟带to的不定式作补语:

  advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, intend, invite, like, love, order, persuade, prefer, require, teach, tell, want, warn, wish等。

  〔误〕 My father had expected me going to college.

  〔正〕 My father had expected me to go to college.

  〔析〕"期望某人干……"是expect sb. to do sth.。 6. 下列动词后在主动语态中用不带to的不定式作补语,但在被动语态中要加上to:

  make, let, have, see, hear, watch, notice, feel, look at, listen to等。

  〔误〕 The boy was made wash the truck as a punishment.

  〔正〕 The boy was made to wash the truck as a punishment. 7. 在easy, difficult, hard, interesting, pleasant等形容词后的不定式用主动形式表示被动含义。

  〔误〕 I find the article difficult to be understood.

  〔正〕 I find the article difficult to understand. 8. 在be worth, want, need, require后用动名词的主动形式表示被动含义。

  〔误〕 The plant needs be watered.

  〔正〕 The plant needs watering.

  〔析〕need to be done=need doing,动名词主动形式表被动。 9. 由不及物动词构成不定式且不定式与其有逻辑上的动宾关系时,动词的后面需加适当的介词补充说明前面的名词或代词。

  〔误〕 He is well prepared for the exam and has nothing to worry.

  〔正〕 He is well prepared for the exam and has nothing to worry about.

  〔析〕worry是不及物动词,且与前面的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系,因此后面需加介词。 10.典例题 〔例1〕 Having passed all the tests , she felt a great weight taking off her mind. taking→taken。此句的意思是"通过了所有的测验,她感到去掉了一块心病"。weight 与take off 是动宾关系,所以用过去分词形式,taken off 在句中作宾语补足语。 〔例2〕In spite of his breaking English ,he can make himself understood.

  breaking→broken。broken English 表示不连贯的英语。 〔例3〕I didn’t go to visit the Science Museum on National Day but I hope it soon.

  it→to。 为了表达简练,我们可把不定式中的动词和后面的部分省略,而仅仅保留不定式符号to。 〔例4〕 The new college graduate insisted on sent where he was most needed.

  sent前加being。 insist 一词后接从句或on doing 短语,动词send和主语graduate 是动宾关系,所以需用动名词的被动式。 四、指导借鉴   非谓语动词具有灵活多变的特点,大家在判断使用何种非谓语动词形式时,可遵循以下规律: 1. 对比时间:对照谓语动词的时间,确定非谓语动词的时态形式

  非谓语动词的各种时态形式都是依据句子的谓语动词的时态形式而变化的。一般情况下,如果非谓语动词所表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,我们就用不定式的一般式;如果表示动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行,我们就用现在分词的一般式或不定式的进行式;如果表示动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,我们就用现在分词、不定式或动名词的完成式(特殊情况下,也可用动名词的一般式)。 2.辨明逻辑:从非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系判断非谓语动词的语态

  如果非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的发出者,即两者之间存在主谓关系,就用非谓语动词的主动式;如果逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者,即两者之间存在动宾关系,就用非谓语动词的被动式。 3. 两方面结合,判断时态、语态混合形式

  有些非谓语动词的形式把时态和语态的变化融合在一起,这时,我们可以把上述两方面结合起来判断。在非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者的情况下,a)如果非谓语动词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,就用现在分词的被动式;b)如果动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,就用不定式的被动式;c)如果动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,就用现在分词、动名词或不定式的完成被动式。 五、简明记

  在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词。 1)不定式

  时态语态 主动 被动

  一般式 to do to be done

  完成式 to have done to have been done 2)动名词

  时态语态 主动 被动

  一般式 doing being done

  完成式 having done having been done 3)分词

  时态语态 主动 被动

  一般式 doing being done

  完成式 having done having been done

  否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

  六、现在分词和动名词的区别

  I.动名词与现在分词作表语时的比较

  1.动名词作表语说明主语的内容,回答 what的问题;现在分词作表语相当于形容词作表语,说明主语的性质、特征等,回答how的问题。如:

  ①One of the best exercises is swimming.游泳是最好的运动项目之一。

  ②What pleases him most is bathing in the sea.最使他高兴的事是在海中沐浴。

  ③The situation both at home and abroad is very in- spiring.国内外的形势都很鼓舞人心。

  ④The color is pleasing to the eye.颜色悦目。

  2.动名词作表语,表语和主语几乎处于同等地位,可以互换位置,其句意不变;现在分词作表语,表语和主语则不能互换位置。如:

  ①Our work is serving the people.(=Serving the people is our work.)我们的工作是为人民服务。

  ②The news was disappointing.那消息令人失望。

  3.作表语的现在分词前可以用very,quite,rather, greatly等副词修饰,而动名词则不可以。如:

  ①What he said was very encouraging.他的话很鼓舞人心。

  ②Our goal is realizing the four modernizations in the near future.我们的目标是在不久的将来实现四个现代化。

  4.现在分词与形容词一样可以和more,the most构成形容词的比较级和最高级,而动名词则不可以。如:

  The story is the most fascinating.那个故事最迷人。

  5.作表语用的现在分词除了和be连用以外,还可以和其它的系动词连用;而作表语的动名词则通常只能和be连用。如:

  ① His speech seems inspiring.他的演讲似乎很鼓舞人心。

  ②His interest is writing for the newspapers.他的爱好是给报社写文章。

  6.有些用作表语的现在分词已经形容词化了。常见的有:exciting,moving,inspiring,missing,interesting, disappointing等。

  II.动名词与现在分词作定语时的比较

  1.动名词作定语时,表示它所修饰的名词的性能和用途,和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系;现在分词作定语时,表示它所修饰的名词正在进行的动作,和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系,常可以扩展成一个定语从句。如:

  a swimming girl =a girl who is swimming一个在游泳的姑娘

  a walking stick =a stick that is used for walking一根拐杖

  2.现在分词作定语有时可以后置,而动名词则通常只能放在它所修饰的名词之前。如:

  ①The girl wearing glasses is one of his students.戴眼镜的那个女孩是他的一个学生。

  ②I bought some reading materials.我买了一些阅读材料。

  七、动词不定式和其它非谓语动词用法比较 1、动词不定式和动名词作主语比较   动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性动作,不定式作主语表示具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来的动作。例如:   _______ is a good form of exercise for both young and old.(MET 1992)   A.The walk B.Walking C.To walk D.Walk(Key:B) 2、动词不定式、动名词、分词作表语比较   (1)不定式和动名词作表语的区别同作主语一样。   His job is building houses.   Our task now is to increase food production.   (2)动词不定式和动名词作表语说明主语的内容,现在分词作表语表示主语所具有的特征,过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态。   The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers.   The most important thing is to put theory into practice.   The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,_______ it more difficult.(NMET 1999)   A.not make B.not to make C.not making D.do not make (Key:B) 3、动词不定式和动名词作宾语比较   (1)有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语,如:want,wish,hope,manage,de- mand,promise,refuse,pretend,plan, offer,decide,agree,expect等。   We agreed _______ here,but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.(NMET 1995)   A.having met B.meeting C.to meet D.to have met (Key:C)   (2)有些动词后只跟动名词作宾语,如:admit,appreciate,avoid,con- sider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape, excuse,finish,forgive,imagine, keep,mind,miss,practise,resist, risk,suggest,deny等。   The squirrel was so lucky that it just missed_______ .(MET 1987)   A.catching B.to be caught C.being caught D.to catch (Key:C)   I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon.(MET 1992)   A.you to call B.you call C.you calling D.you’re calling(Key:C)   (3)有些动词后既可以跟不定式又可以跟动名词,意义上无多大区别,如:love, like,hate,prefer,intend,start, continue等。   I intend to finish/finish- ing the task this morning.   (4)有些动词后既可以跟不定式,又可以跟动名词,但意义上有区别,如:forget,remember, mean,regret,stop,try等。   —The light in the office is still on.   —Oh,I forgot _______ .(MET 1991)   A.turning it off B.turn it off C.to turn it off D.having turned it off(Key:C)   —You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.   —Well,now I regret _______ that.(NMET 1995)   A.to do B.to be doing C.to have done D.having done(Key:D) 4、动词不定式、分词作宾语补足语和主语补足语比较   (1)有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语补足语或主语补足语,如:ask,tell,order,want,wish,warn, allow,advise,permit,forbid等。   The patientwas warned _______ oily food after the operation.(NMET 1996)   A.to eat not B.eating not C.not to eat D.not eating(Key:C)   (2)有些动词后既可以跟不定式,又可以跟分词作宾语补足语或主语补足语,但意义不同,如:see,watch,notice,observe,hear,feel,have, make等,且不定式不带to,但在被动结构中必须带to。不定式指动作的全过程;现在分词指正在进行的动作的一部分,且表主动意义;过去分词指已经完成的动作,且表被动意义。   Paul doesn’t have to be made .He always works hard.(NMET 1995)   A.learn B.to learn C.learned D.learning(Key:B)   The manager discussed the plan that they would like so see the next year.(NMET 2000)   A.carry out   B.carrying out   C.carried out   D.to carry out(Key:C) 5、不定式、动名词、分词作定语比较   (1)不定式作定语表示“将要”,现在分词表示“正在”或主动,过去分词表示“已经”。   The Olympic Games,in 776 B.C.,did not include women players until1912.(NMET 1997)   A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played D.to be first playing(Key:C)   When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door“Sorry to miss you; will call later.”(NMET 1999)   A.read B.reads C.to read D.reading(Key:D)   (2)动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途,现在分词作定语表示被修饰名词的动作。   a swimming pool动名词作定语,a swim- ming fish现在分词作定语。 6、动词不定式作状语修饰动词、形容词,表示原因、目的和结果,分词作状语修饰动词和句子,表示时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随和结果。   ____late in the morning,Bob turned off the alarm.(NMET 2001)   A.To sleep B.Sleeping C.Sleep D.Having slept(Key:A)   ____such heavy pollution already,it may now be too late to clean up the river.(NMET 2000)   A.Having suffered B.Suffering C.To suffer D.Suffered(Key:A)   _____more attention,the trees could have grown better.(MET 1990)   A.Given B.To give C.Giving D.Having given(Key:A)


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